باغ های ایرانی، میراث جهانی یونسکو
Jahanegardesh-These properties which include nine gardens in different provinces and have had influenced the design of gardens from India to Spain, are known as human world heritage and it is registered by UNESCO in ۲۰۱۱. According to the Greek historians, creating these kind of gardens around the buildings and in the yards in Iran have has ۳۰۰۰ years history. These green surroundings are called “pah are dese or par dis) which means ‘the surroundings of the castle’. The word ‘dis’ means ‘building’ and ‘pardis’ means ‘Paradise. The creation of these gardens is inspired by good order of the universe. The gardens are appropriate to different climate conditions and calls every passengers to stop and think for a while in these earthy paradises.
The persian garden sign on high reliefs and city garden
The scene of hunting by Kosrow Parviz (the king of Sasanian Empire) on the high relief of ‘Bagh-Shekar’ in Tagh e Bostan is the oldest image of persian gardens. Of coarse the creation of geometrical based gardens started on the Hakhamaneshiyan Empire by Pasargad garden. By building ‘the castle- garden of Firoozabad Bistoon’ and ‘Takht e Soleyman’ this process continued. But many believe the era of Safavids was the blossom of the Persian garden creation; firstly it started in Gazvin as their capital, then transferred to Isfahan and Shiraz and expanded.
You can find these shared characters in these gardens: the symmetrical considerations; betting pool in front of the building; the good order between the water, plants and architecture; tall walls that surrounded the garden; nearby the Ghanat or being in the way of the water; an amazing and unique building in the center.
The list of registered persian gardens by UNESCO
The Pasargad garden in Fars province: the Pasargad garden has ۴۰۰۰ years history and it is the first garden in the human history that is created by the order of Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Notably the structure and the design of many other persian gardens are inspired by this garden that with ۲۴۹ hectares is located on the north of Shiraz. From a planning point of view, this garden is divided into ۴ parts and water is an effective element in its architecture and portrayal. Indeed the four main elements in Zoroaster (sky, water, earth and plants) are considered in the planning of the garden.
Eram garden in Fars province
The architecture of the garden is in the style of the Qajar and Zand Empire. This world
Heritage is considered as a masterpiece because of its architecture, plaster work, amazing paintings. The design of the pillars in its two Story is inspired by Takthe Jamshid.
Chehel sotoun garden
This garden is one of the main tourism attractions in the middle east in which you can see ۲۰ pillars on the ground and ۲۰ pillars image in the tank that is in front of the building at the same time. This garden is built in the period of Shah Abbas. Its ‘mansion’ is the main part of it which includes: Aiyneh hall, Bist Sotoun hall and two big rooms on the north and south of the building and portico around the big tank that is in front of the building. The roof and the walls are covered with amazing paintings that is a resemblance of the art of that era and the people’s living style.
Fin garden in Kashan
This garden has a central yard and walls, towers in the surrounding which belongs to the Safavid period.
Pahlavan Pour garden in Yazd province
This Persian garden as one of the world heritages locates in Mehriz city and it is famous because of flowing the water from the center of the garden. The water has reached to the garden from ‘the Hassanabad Ganat’.
Dolat Abad garden in Yaz province
Dolat abad garden is one of the oldest gardens of the city. The main part of it that is called ‘emarat e hashti’ you can have the water and wind in the middle of the building ; that’s why it is called ‘summer mansion’ too.
Akbarieh garden in South Khorasan province
It is built in the mountain in the period of the Zand and Qajar Empires. This big building has several mansions that the ‘Heshmat ol Molk’ mansion is the oldest one.
Abbas Abad garden in Mazandaran province
This amazing garden is located in the green cradle of the Mazandaran province, ۹ kilometers to Behshahr, in the middle of the jungle and the heart of the Alborz mountains. The garden includes: dam, lake, dam bank, flower garden, water mill, palace and two bricklayer tower that is created by the order of the Shah Abbas.
Mahan garden in Kerman province
This garden that belongs to Qajar Empire is ۵.۵ hectare and it is located in ‘Tigran’ mountains.
The reflection of the art of Persian gardens is obviously visible in many masterpieces in art, literature, paintings (Sohrab Sepehry, Akhavan), architecture (Houshang Seyhoun), music, persian carpet, tiling,…. These persian world heritages call everybody to visit and fascinates everyone.
نقل از نشریه شماره ۲۰ دیار آشنا